1. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology.
2. There are four fundamental tissues in the human body: epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle.
3. A tissue is an aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances and structures produced by cellular activity.
4. Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
5. Tissues have a wide range of functions, for example protecting our body from moisture loss, bacteria, internal injury and providing structure and support to the body.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. (СРС)
|I. Перекладіть словосполучення: скупчення схожих клітин вистилаючий епітелій базальна пластинка (шар) вистилати стінки кровоносних судин неоформлена (крихка, рихла) сполучна тканина м’язи, що довільно та мимовільно скорочуються вивчати патологічну гістологію тканина гладких м’яз залозистий епітелій поперечно-смугасті м’язові тканини II. Дайте відповідь на питання: What kinds of tissues group together and form the organs? What does the epithelial tissue provide? What are the main functions of covering and lining epithelium? What are the main three kinds of muscle tissues? What does histopathology study? III. Розкрийте поняття: тканина гістологія|
Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:
|alga, n pl algae||['ælgə] pl Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. ['ælʤɪ:]||морська водорість|
|benefit, v||[ˊbenɪfɪt]||приносити користь|
|cause, n||['kɔ: z]||причина|
|encompass, v||[en'kʌmpəs]||містити в собі|
|fungus, n pl fungi||[fʌnɡəs] ['fʌnʤaɪ (-ɡaɪ, -ʤɪ]||гриб|
|harmful, adj||['hɑ:mfʊl]||шкідливий, згубний|
|heredity, n||[hɪ' redɪtɪ]||спадковість|
Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly:
Louis Pasteur ['lu:is pæs 'tə:]; Robert Koch ['rɔbət kəuk]; microbiology ['maikrəubai 'ɔləʤi]; mycology [mai 'kɔl Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”.əʤɪ]; virology [vaiə'rɔləʤɪ]; parasitology [pærəsai 'tɔləʤɪ]; bacteriology [bæktiəri 'ɔləʤɪ]; discipline ['dɪsɪplɪn]; biosynthesis [baiəu 'sɪnθesis]; colony ['kɒlənɪ]; penicillin [ˌpenɪˊsɪlɪn]; antibiotics [æntɪbaɪ 'ɒtɪks]; stereoscope ['sterɪəskəup]
Exercise 3. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading:
[əs] – infectious, dangerous, numerous, previous, fibrous, nervous, venous, various
[ɑ:] – dance, plant, grant, advantage, branch, advance
[ə] – contain, consists, comprise, concern, control, correct, complete
Exercise 4. Study the elements of medical terminology. Read and translate the following words and give more examples of your own:
a – (negative – ні, без Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”.) – acellular, abactertial, abiotic, avalvular, avascular, avirulent, atoxic
multi – (багато) – multicellular, multicapsular, multichamber, multivitamins, multipurpose
uni – (one – один) - unicellular, unicameral, unilateral, uninuclear, uniocular, unigravida
Exercise 5. Make Adverbs from Adjectives. Translate them into Ukrainian:
Model: slow – slowly (повільний – повільно)
Slow, vigorous, quick, numerous, rapid, nervous, general, subcutaneous, intramuscular, common, sharp, intravenous
Exercise 6. Give the Plural of the following Nouns:
Example: analysis – analyses, force – forces
Diagnosis, process, force, fungus, disease, abscess, science, medicine, prognosis, course, neurosis, tissue, toe, discipline, branch, medicine, advance, cause, thesis, stereoscope, virus.
Exercise 7. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:
Microscopic organisms; scientific study; controlling activities; numerous sub-disciplines; disease Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”.-causing microorganisms; harmful effects; channeling the activities; to benefit medicine; produce antibiotics; the branches of microbiology; pure and applied sciences; advances made in physics; the practical usefulness; the improvement of health; treatment options; outbreaks of disease; species and their properties; to examine under a stereoscope; to avoid infection; to gain weight; to survive the operation well; to encompass many disciplines
Exercise 8. Read and translate the text:
Microbiology is the scientific study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells) including protozoans, yeasts, algae, molds, microscopic fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Microbiology is concerned with the Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. structure, function, and classification of these organisms and with ways of controlling and using their activities.
Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasito-logy, and bacteriology. Its foundations were established in the later 19th century, with the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Since then, the scientists have identified many disease-causing microorganisms and have developed means of controlling their harmful effects. In addition, they have discovered means of channeling the activities of various microorganisms to benefit medicine, industry, and agriculture. Molds, for example, produce antibiotics, notably penicillin.
Modern microbiology. The branches of microbiology can be classified Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. into pure and applied sciences. Both general microbiology and its specialized branches are developing extremely vigorously. There are three fundamental reasons for such development. First, microbiology has had the advantage of a large number of new methods of research, through advances made in physics, chemistry, and engineering. Second, the practical usefulness of microorganisms has increased sharply since the 1940’s. Third, microorganisms are being used to solve some of the most important theoretical problems of biology, such as heredity and variability, the biosynthesis of organic compounds, and metabolic regulation.
Medical microbiology related to applied sciences is a branch of medicine Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. There are four kinds of microorganisms that can cause infectious disease; bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health as well.
A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Using this information a treatment can be devised. Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. They may also assist in preventing or controlling epidemics and outbreaks Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. of disease. Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their properties can be used to develop antibiotics or other treatment methods.
Exercise 9. Answer the questions:
1. What science studies the microscopic organisms?
2. What is microbiology concerned with?
3. What sub-disciplines does microbiology encompass?
4. Who are considered to be the founders of microbiology?
5. What branches can modern microbiology be classified into?
6. What is medical microbiology concerned with?
7. What does a medical microbiologist study?
8. What do medical microbiologists provide?
Exercise 10. Match the terms with their explanations:
|a) stereoscope b) microbiology c) virology d) pharmaceutical Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. microbiology e) mycology f) parasitology g) bacteriology h) biosynthesis||a) the branch of medicine concerned with the study of viruses and the diseases they cause; the formation of complex compounds from simple substances by living organisms; b) an optical instrument for viewing two-dimensional pictures; c) the branch of biology involving the study of microorganisms; d) the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi; e) the branch of biology that is concerned with the study of parasites; f) the branch of science concerned with the study of bacteria; g) the study of microorganisms related to the production of antibiotics Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”., enzymes, vitamins, vaccines and other pharmaceutical products.|
Exercise 11. Find corresponding equivalents:
Багатоклітинні мікроорганізми; мікроскопічні гриби; класифікація організмів; містити в собі: ті, що викликають хворобу; шкідлива дія; напрямки діяльності різноманітних мікроорганізмів; в інтересах медицини; галузь медицини; теоретична та прикладна наука; спадковість і мінливість; біосинтез органічних сполук; поліпшення здоров'я; шляхи передачі інфекції; спалах захворювань; звичайні, непатогенні види та їх властивості
Exercise 12. Fill in the gaps with prepositions from the box below:
Microbiological culture is the primary method used ____ isolating infectious disease ____ study _______the laboratory. Tissue or fluid samples are tested ____ the presence ___ a specific pathogen, which is determined Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”. _______ growth in a selective or differential medium.
The 3 main types ____ media used ____ testing are:
1. A solid surface is created using a mixture of nutrients, salts and agar. A single microbe on an agar plate can then grow into colonies (clones where cells are identical to each other) containing thousands ________ cells. These are primarily used bacteria and fungi.
2. Cells are grown inside a liquid media. Microbial growth is determined by the time taken for the liquid to form a colloidal suspension. This technique is used _________ diagnosing parasites and detecting mycobacteria.
3. Human or animal cell cultures are infected with the microbe of interest Exercise 18. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “tissue”.. These cultures are then observed to determine the effect this new microbe has _______ the cell. This technique is used for identifying viruses.
|in, by, of, for; on|
*Find the answers to the following questions:
1. In what cases is the microbiological culture used?
2. What materials are usually tested?
3.What types of media are used for testing?
Exercise 13. Complete the sentences: